Egyptian Dates

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Civil dates: (Excel) (HTML) (CSV)                                                   Lunar cycle: (Excel) (HTML) (CSV)

This page gives access to a set of conversion tables for determining the Julian equivalent of Egyptian civil and lunar dates in the Ptolemaic era. Two tables are provided: a table converting civil dates to Julian dates, and a table notionally converting lunar dates to civil dates according to the lunar cycle of pCarlsberg 9.

The tables are formed as protected Excel speadsheets. They are also available in HTML format and a CSV text format. The tables open in a new window. Users with dialup lines are warned that the Excel and HTML versions of the civil year conversion table are large: 409 KB (Excel) and 2,671 KB (HTML).

The civil year conversion table is the backbone of Egyptian chronology in this period. It covers the interval from year 1 of Alexander the Great in Egypt = 332/1 to year 43 of Augustus = AD 13/14. It indicates Egyptian regnal year numbers and the associated king(s), and, where appropriate, the Macedonian and financial year numbers, as well as the cycle year number in the lunar conversation table for each civil year. It is also annotated to indicate synchronisms to Macedonian, Roman, Egyptian lunar and financial year dates and anchor points for Distanzangaben.

The lunar conversion table gives conversions between Egyptian lunar and civil dates (for the wandering year) according to the rules of pCarlsberg 9, as reconstructed by Depuydt. The lunar calendar was used to regulate temple and religious life and is generally much less important to this study. Its chronological contribution is through the appearance of lunar / civil double dates. Collectively, these are important as evidence that the Canopic reform of 238 was ineffective. They are also occasionally useful in resolving civil dates that are otherwise ambiguous, and are particularly useful in helping to establish the dates of Berenice IV.

15 April 2006 (tax day): Added discussion of the origins of the financial year based on Muhs' dating of tax receipts and their distribution
29 July 2006: Added preliminary release of the discussion of the Canopic reform, addressing both its intercalary phase and its longevity
5 Aug 2007: Added discussion of resolution of birthday problem for the Alexandrian reform -- thanks to Prof Grzybek for bringing emerai sebastai to my attention

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